Next Article in Journal
Prognostic Role of High-Grade Tumor Budding in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with a Focus on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition
Next Article in Special Issue
Profiling of Invasive Breast Carcinoma Circulating Tumour Cells—Are We Ready for the ‘Liquid’ Revolution?
Previous Article in Journal
Hypoxic Radioresistance: Can ROS Be the Key to Overcome It?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spectrum of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotypes in Circulating Tumour Cells from Early Breast Cancer Patients
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Cancers 2019, 11(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11010114

Expression of Proteolytic Enzymes by Small Cell Lung Cancer Circulating Tumor Cell Lines

1
Department of Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
2
Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
3
Respiratory Oncology Unit, Otto Wagner Hospital, A-1140 Vienna, Austria
4
Hospital Horn, A-3580 Horn, Austria
5
Molecular Oncology Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Comprehensive Cancer Center-Gynecological Cancer Unit, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs))
Full-Text   |   PDF [2525 KB, uploaded 19 January 2019]   |  

Abstract

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive type of lung cancer which disseminates vigorously and has a dismal prognosis. Metastasis of SCLC is linked to an extremely high number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which form chemoresistant spheroids, termed tumorospheres. Intravasation and extravasation during tumor spread requires the activity of a number of proteases to disintegrate the stroma and vascular tissue. Generation of several permanent SCLC CTC lines allowed us to screen for the expression of 35 proteases using Western blot arrays. Cell culture supernatants of two CTC lines, namely BHGc7 and 10, were analyzed for secreted proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), ADAM/TS, cathepsins, kallikreins, and others, and compared to proteases expressed by SCLC cell lines (GLC14, GLC16, NCI-H526 and SCLC26A). In contrast to NCI-H526 and SCLC26A, MMP-9 was highly expressed in the two CTC lines and in GLC16 derived of a relapse. Furthermore, cathepsins (S, V, X/Z/P, A and D) were highly expressed in the CTC lines, whereas ADAM/TS and kallikreins were not detectable. In conclusion, SCLC CTCs express MMP-9 and a range of cathepsins for proteolysis and, aside from tissue degradation, these enzymes are involved in cell signaling, survival, and the chemoresistance of tumor cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: small cell lung cancer; circulating tumor cells; proteases; MMP-9; cathepsin S; metastasis small cell lung cancer; circulating tumor cells; proteases; MMP-9; cathepsin S; metastasis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rath, B.; Klameth, L.; Plangger, A.; Hochmair, M.; Ulsperger, E.; Huk, I.; Zeillinger, R.; Hamilton, G. Expression of Proteolytic Enzymes by Small Cell Lung Cancer Circulating Tumor Cell Lines. Cancers 2019, 11, 114.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top