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Cancers 2019, 11(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11010108

Cancer Immunotherapy: Silencing Intracellular Negative Immune Regulators of Dendritic Cells

1
Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
3
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
4
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
5
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally.
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines: Research and Applications)
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Abstract

Dendritic cells (DCs) are capable of activating adaptive immune responses, or inducing immune suppression or tolerance. In the tumor microenvironment, the function of DCs is polarized into immune suppression that attenuates the effect of T cells, promoting differentiation of regulatory T cells and supporting tumor progression. Therefore, blocking negative immune regulators in DCs is considered a strategy of cancer immunotherapy. Antibodies can target molecules on the cell surface, but not intracellular molecules of DCs. The delivery of short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA) and small-interfering RNAs (siRNA) should be a strategy to silence specific intracellular targets in DCs. This review provides an overview of the known negative immune regulators of DCs. Moreover, a combination of shRNA/siRNA and DC vaccines, DNA vaccines in animal models, and clinical trials are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: dendritic cells (DCs); short-hairpin RNA (shRNA); small-interfering RNA (siRNA); intracellular negative immune regulator; cancer dendritic cells (DCs); short-hairpin RNA (shRNA); small-interfering RNA (siRNA); intracellular negative immune regulator; cancer
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Liu, Y.-H.; Yeh, I.-J.; Lai, M.-D.; Liu, K.-T.; Kuo, P.-L.; Yen, M.-C. Cancer Immunotherapy: Silencing Intracellular Negative Immune Regulators of Dendritic Cells. Cancers 2019, 11, 108.

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