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Estrogen and Androgen Blockade for Advanced Prostate Cancer in the Era of Precision Medicine

1
Department of Urology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan
2
Department of Functional Biogerontology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan
3
Department of Urology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2018, 10(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10020029
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Receptors in Genitourinary Tumors)
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been widely prescribed for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) to control key signaling pathways via androgen receptor (AR) and AR-collaborative transcriptional factors; however, PC gradually acquires a lethal phenotype and results in castration-resistant PC (CRPC) during ADT. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are required in clinical practice. In addition, ARs; estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ); and estrogen-related receptors (ERRs; ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ) have been reported to be involved in the development or regulation of PC. Recent investigations have revealed the role of associated molecules, such as KLF5, FOXO1, PDGFA, VEGF-A, WNT5A, TGFβ1, and micro-RNA 135a of PC, via ERs and ERRs. Selective ER modulators (SERMs) have been developed. Recently, estrogen and androgen blockade (EAB) using a combination of toremifene and ADT has been demonstrated to improve biochemical recurrence rate in treatment-naïve bone metastatic PC. In the future, the suitability of ADT alone or EAB for individuals may be evaluated by making clinical decisions on the basis of information obtained from RT-PCR, gene-panel, or liquid biopsy to create a “personalized medicine” or “precision medicine”. In this review, we summarize ER and ERR signaling pathways, molecular diagnosis, and SERMs as candidates for advanced PC treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; androgen receptor; estrogen-related receptor; stem cell; androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs); personalized medicine; precision medicine prostate cancer; androgen receptor; estrogen-related receptor; stem cell; androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs); personalized medicine; precision medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fujimura, T.; Takayama, K.; Takahashi, S.; Inoue, S. Estrogen and Androgen Blockade for Advanced Prostate Cancer in the Era of Precision Medicine. Cancers 2018, 10, 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10020029

AMA Style

Fujimura T, Takayama K, Takahashi S, Inoue S. Estrogen and Androgen Blockade for Advanced Prostate Cancer in the Era of Precision Medicine. Cancers. 2018; 10(2):29. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10020029

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fujimura, Tetsuya; Takayama, Kenichi; Takahashi, Satoru; Inoue, Satoshi. 2018. "Estrogen and Androgen Blockade for Advanced Prostate Cancer in the Era of Precision Medicine" Cancers 10, no. 2: 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10020029

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