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Prolonged Idasanutlin (RG7388) Treatment Leads to the Generation of p53-Mutated Cells

1
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 2, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Endocrinology, Medical Faculty, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 17, 31-501 Krakow, Poland
3
Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
4
Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110396
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Chemoresistance)
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PDF [10165 KB, uploaded 24 October 2018]
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Abstract

The protein p53 protects the organism against carcinogenic events by the induction of cell cycle arrest and DNA repair program upon DNA damage. Virtually all cancers inactivate p53 either by mutations/deletions of the TP53 gene or by boosting negative regulation of p53 activity. The overexpression of MDM2 protein is one of the most common mechanisms utilized by p53wt cancers to keep p53 inactive. Inhibition of MDM2 action by its antagonists has proved its anticancer potential in vitro and is now tested in clinical trials. However, the prolonged treatment of p53wt cells with MDM2 antagonists leads to the development of secondary resistance, as shown first for Nutlin-3a, and later for three other small molecules. In the present study, we show that secondary resistance occurs also after treatment of p53wt cells with idasanutlin (RG7388, RO5503781), which is the only MDM2 antagonist that has passed phase II and entered phase III clinical trials, so far. Idasanutlin strongly activates p53, as evidenced by the induction of p21 expression and potent cell cycle arrest in all the three cell lines tested, i.e., MCF-7, U-2 OS, and SJSA-1. Notably, apoptosis was induced only in SJSA-1 cells, while MCF-7 and U-2 OS cells were able to restore the proliferation upon the removal of idasanutlin. Moreover, idasanutlin-treated U-2 OS cells could be cultured for long time periods in the presence of the drug. This prolonged treatment led to the generation of p53-mutated resistant cell populations. This resistance was generated de novo, as evidenced by the utilization of monoclonal U-2 OS subpopulations. Thus, although idasanutlin presents much improved activities compared to its precursor, it displays the similar weaknesses, which are limited elimination of cancer cells and the generation of p53-mutated drug-resistant subpopulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: MDM2 antagonists; idasanutlin; RG7388; p53 induction; cancer; secondary drug resistance MDM2 antagonists; idasanutlin; RG7388; p53 induction; cancer; secondary drug resistance
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Skalniak, L.; Kocik, J.; Polak, J.; Skalniak, A.; Rak, M.; Wolnicka-Glubisz, A.; Holak, T.A. Prolonged Idasanutlin (RG7388) Treatment Leads to the Generation of p53-Mutated Cells. Cancers 2018, 10, 396.

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