Next Article in Journal
Contemporary Management of Localized Resectable Pancreatic Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
mTOR Cross-Talk in Cancer and Potential for Combination Therapy
Open AccessReview

Colorectal Cancers: An Update on Their Molecular Pathology

Division of Pathology, The Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan
Cancers 2018, 10(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10010026
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
  |  
PDF [3035 KB, uploaded 20 January 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Rather than being a single, uniform disease type, accumulating evidence suggests that CRCs comprise a group of molecularly heterogeneous diseases that are characterized by a range of genomic and epigenomic alterations. This heterogeneity slows the development of molecular-targeted therapy as a form of precision medicine. Recent data regarding comprehensive molecular characterizations and molecular pathological examinations of CRCs have increased our understanding of the genomic and epigenomic landscapes of CRCs, which has enabled CRCs to be reclassified into biologically and clinically meaningful subtypes. The increased knowledge of the molecular pathological epidemiology of CRCs has permitted their evolution from a vaguely understood, heterogeneous group of diseases with variable clinical courses to characteristic molecular subtypes, a development that will allow the implementation of personalized therapies and better management of patients with CRC. This review provides a perspective regarding recent developments in our knowledge of the molecular and epidemiological landscapes of CRCs, including results of comprehensive molecular characterizations obtained from high-throughput analyses and the latest developments regarding their molecular pathologies, immunological biomarkers, and associated gut microbiome. Advances in our understanding of potential personalized therapies for molecularly specific subtypes are also reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: chromosomal instability; colorectal cancer; microsatellite instability; molecular characterization; personalized therapy chromosomal instability; colorectal cancer; microsatellite instability; molecular characterization; personalized therapy
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Inamura, K. Colorectal Cancers: An Update on Their Molecular Pathology. Cancers 2018, 10, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top