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Open AccessArticle

Chiral Orientation of Skeletal Muscle Cells Requires Rigid Substrate

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Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Hong Kong, China
2
School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Hong Kong, China
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Centre for Robotics and Automation, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Hong Kong, China
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CityU Shenzhen Research Institute, 8 Yuexing 1st Road, Shenzhen Hi-Tech Industrial Park, Nanshan District, Shenzhen 518057, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wei Wang, Chia-Hung Chen, Zhigang Wu and Nam-Trung Nguyen
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8060181
Received: 11 February 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optofluidics 2016)
Reconstitution of tissue morphology with inherent left–right (LR) asymmetry is essential for tissue/organ functions. For skeletal muscle, the largest tissue in mammalian organisms, successful myogenesis requires the regulation of the LR asymmetry to form the appropriate muscle alignment. However, the key factor for reproducing the LR asymmetry of skeletal tissues in a controllable, engineering context remains largely unknown. Recent reports indicate that cell chirality may underlie the LR development in tissue morphogenesis. Here, we report that a rigid substrate is required for the chirality of skeletal muscle cells. By using alternating micropatterned cell-adherent and cell-repellent stripes on a rigid substrate, we found that C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts exhibited a unidirectional tilted orientation with respect to the stripe boundary. Importantly, such chiral orientation was reduced when soft substrates were used instead. In addition, we demonstrated the key role of actin stress fibers in the formation of the chiral orientation. This study reveals that a rigid substrate is required for the chiral pattern of myoblasts, paving the way for reconstructing damaged muscle tissue with inherent LR asymmetry in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell chirality; left–right asymmetry; stiffness; skeletal muscle myoblast; micropatterning; cell orientation cell chirality; left–right asymmetry; stiffness; skeletal muscle myoblast; micropatterning; cell orientation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, N.; Kwong, H.K.; Bao, Y.; Chen, T.-H. Chiral Orientation of Skeletal Muscle Cells Requires Rigid Substrate. Micromachines 2017, 8, 181.

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