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Open AccessArticle

3D–4D Printed Objects: New Bioactive Material Opportunities

Univ Lyon, Université Lyon1, CNRS, INSA, CPE-Lyon, ICBMS, UMR 5246, 43, Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne CEDEX, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 102;
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing: Microfabrication and Emerging Concepts)
One of the main objectives of 3D printing in health science is to mimic biological functions. To reach this goal, a 4D printing might be added to 3D-printed objects which will be characterized by their abilities to evolve over time and under external stimulus by modifying their shape, properties or composition. Such abilities are the promise of great opportunities for biosensing and biomimetic systems to progress towards more physiological mimicking systems. Herein are presented two 4D printing examples for biosensing and biomimetic applications using 3D-printed enzymes. The first one is based on the printing of the enzymatic couple glucose oxidase/peroxidase for the chemiluminescent detection of glucose, and the second uses printed alkaline phosphatase to generate in situ programmed and localized calcification of the printed object. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; 4D printing; bioactive materials; enzyme printing 3D printing; 4D printing; bioactive materials; enzyme printing
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Mandon, C.A.; Blum, L.J.; Marquette, C.A. 3D–4D Printed Objects: New Bioactive Material Opportunities. Micromachines 2017, 8, 102.

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