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Micromachines 2016, 7(10), 190;

Variable-Focus Liquid Lens Integrated with a Planar Electromagnetic Actuator

Science and Technology on Electronic Test & Measurement Laboratory, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China
School of Instrument and Electronics, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Shih-Chi Chen and Wei-Chuan Shih
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS/NEMS for Biomedical Imaging and Sensing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4775 KB, uploaded 17 October 2016]   |  


In this paper, we design, fabricate and characterize a new electromagnetically actuated variable-focus liquid lens which consists of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) substrates, a SU-8 substrate, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, a permanent magnet and a planar electromagnetic actuator. The performance of this liquid lens is tested from four aspects including surface profiling, optical observation, variation of focal length and dynamic response speed. The results shows that with increasing current, the optical chamber PDMS membrane bulges up into a shape with a smaller radius of curvature, and the picture recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera through the liquid lens also gradually becomes blurred. As the current changes from −1 to 1.2 A, the whole measured focal length of the proposed liquid lens ranges from −133 to −390 mm and from 389 to 61 mm. Then a 0.8 A square-wave current is applied to the electrode, and the actuation time and relaxation time are 340 and 460 ms, respectively. The liquid lens proposed in the paper is easily integrated with microfluidic chips and medical detecting instruments due to its planar structure. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid lens; focal length; planar coil; ultraviolet photolithography (UV-LIGA); electromagnetic actuation liquid lens; focal length; planar coil; ultraviolet photolithography (UV-LIGA); electromagnetic actuation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, L.; Duan, J.; Zhang, B.; Wang, W. Variable-Focus Liquid Lens Integrated with a Planar Electromagnetic Actuator. Micromachines 2016, 7, 190.

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