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Pump-Free Microfluidic Hemofiltration Device

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522, Kanagawa, Japan
Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan
Pre-Clinical Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8492, Japan
Japanese Small Animal Hemodialysis Association, 63-2-7 Nihonbashi-Hongokucho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0021, Japan
Kamishakujii Animal Hospital, 1-4-13 Sekimachi-Higashi, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177-0052, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Joseph A. Potkay and Bugra Ayan
Micromachines 2021, 12(8), 992;
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 16 August 2021 / Accepted: 18 August 2021 / Published: 20 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic Artificial Organs)
Hemofiltration removes water and small molecules from the blood via nanoporous filtering membranes. This paper discusses a pump-free hemofiltration device driven by the pressure difference between the artery and the vein. In the design of the filtering device, oncotic pressure needs to be taken into consideration. Transmembrane pressure (TMP) determines the amount and direction of hemofiltration, which is calculated by subtracting the oncotic pressure from the blood pressure. Blood pressure decreases as the channels progress from the inlet to the outlet, while oncotic pressure increases slightly since no protein is removed from the blood to the filtrate in hemofiltration. When TMP is negative, the filtrate returns to the blood, i.e., backfiltration takes place. A small region of the device with negative TMP would thus result in a small amount of or even zero filtrates. First, we investigated this phenomenon using in vitro experiments. We then designed a hemofiltration system taking backfiltration into consideration. We divided the device into two parts. In the first part, the device has channels for the blood and filtrate with a nanoporous membrane. In the second part, the device does not have channels for filtration. This design ensures TMP is always positive in the first part and prevents backfiltration. The concept was verified using in vitro experiments and ex vivo experiments in beagle dogs. Given the simplicity of the device without pumps or electrical components, the proposed pump-free hemofiltration device may prove useful for either implantable or wearable hemofiltration. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfluidic; artificial kidney; hemofiltration; backfiltration; oncotic pressure; transmembrane pressure; artificial organ; animal test microfluidic; artificial kidney; hemofiltration; backfiltration; oncotic pressure; transmembrane pressure; artificial organ; animal test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ito, T.; Ota, T.; Kono, R.; Miyaoka, Y.; Ishibashi, H.; Komori, M.; Yasukawa, A.; Kanno, Y.; Miki, N. Pump-Free Microfluidic Hemofiltration Device. Micromachines 2021, 12, 992.

AMA Style

Ito T, Ota T, Kono R, Miyaoka Y, Ishibashi H, Komori M, Yasukawa A, Kanno Y, Miki N. Pump-Free Microfluidic Hemofiltration Device. Micromachines. 2021; 12(8):992.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ito, Takahiro, Takashi Ota, Rei Kono, Yoshitaka Miyaoka, Hidetoshi Ishibashi, Masaki Komori, Akio Yasukawa, Yoshihiko Kanno, and Norihisa Miki. 2021. "Pump-Free Microfluidic Hemofiltration Device" Micromachines 12, no. 8: 992.

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