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Development of Artificial Cell Models Using Microfluidic Technology and Synthetic Biology
Open AccessArticle

Environment-Sensitive Intelligent Self-Reproducing Artificial Cell with a Modification-Active Lipo-Deoxyribozyme

1
Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
2
Department of Creative Research, Exploratory Research Center on Life and Living Systems (ExCELLS), Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kanagawa University, Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293, Japan
4
Department of Life and Coordination-Complex Molecular Science, Biomolecular Functions, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585, Japan
5
Universal Biology Institute, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
6
Misaki Marine Biological Station, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 1024 Koajiro, Misaki, Miura, Kanagawa 238-0225, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science/Graduate School of Integrated Sciences for Life, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan.
Present address: Institute for Extra-cutting-edge Science and Technology Avant-garde Research, Japan Agency for Marine-earth Science and Technology, Natsusima-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-0061, Japan.
Micromachines 2020, 11(6), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11060606
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 9 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Molecular Machines and Molecular Robots)
As a supramolecular micromachine with information flow, a giant vesicle (GV)-based artificial cell that exhibits a linked proliferation between GV reproduction and internal DNA amplification has been explored in this study. The linked proliferation is controlled by a complex consisting of GV membrane-intruded DNA with acidic amphiphilic catalysts, working overall as a lipo-deoxyribozyme. Here, we investigated how a GV-based artificial cell containing this lipo-deoxyribozyme responds to diverse external and internal environments, changing its proliferative dynamics. We observed morphological changes (phenotypic expression) in GVs induced by the addition of membrane precursors with different intervals of addition (starvation periods). First, we focused on a new phenotype, the “multiple tubulated” form, which emerged after a long starvation period. Compared to other forms, the multiple tubulated form is characterized by a larger membrane surface with a heavily cationic charge. A second consideration is the effect of the chain length of encapsulated DNA on competitive proliferation. The competitive proliferation among three different species of artificial cells containing different lengths of DNA was investigated. The results clearly showed a distinct intervention in the proliferation dynamics of the artificial cells with each other. In this sense, our GV-based artificial cell can be regarded as an intelligent supramolecular machine responding to external and internal environments, providing a new concept for developing molecular machines and robotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial cell; giant vesicle; self-reproduction; DNA amplification; lipo-deoxyribozyme; primitive information flow; phenotypic plasticity; competitive proliferation; intelligent supramolecular machine artificial cell; giant vesicle; self-reproduction; DNA amplification; lipo-deoxyribozyme; primitive information flow; phenotypic plasticity; competitive proliferation; intelligent supramolecular machine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Matsuo, M.; Hirata, Y.; Kurihara, K.; Toyota, T.; Miura, T.; Suzuki, K.; Sugawara, T. Environment-Sensitive Intelligent Self-Reproducing Artificial Cell with a Modification-Active Lipo-Deoxyribozyme. Micromachines 2020, 11, 606.

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