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Article

Chemotactic Responses of Jurkat Cells in Microfluidic Flow-Free Gradient Chambers

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
2
Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5080, USA
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Department of Medicine and Center for Immunotherapy, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 837CSC Building, Elm & Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
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Department of Oral Biology and the Center for Craniofacial Regeneration, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
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Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
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McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Computational Biology, and Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
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Department of Developmental Biology, Department of Computational and Systems Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2020, 11(4), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11040384
Received: 3 March 2020 / Revised: 2 April 2020 / Accepted: 2 April 2020 / Published: 4 April 2020
Gradients of soluble molecules coordinate cellular communication in a diverse range of multicellular systems. Chemokine-driven chemotaxis is a key orchestrator of cell movement during organ development, immune response and cancer progression. Chemotaxis assays capable of examining cell responses to different chemokines in the context of various extracellular matrices will be crucial to characterize directed cell motion in conditions which mimic whole tissue conditions. Here, a microfluidic device which can generate different chemokine patterns in flow-free gradient chambers while controlling surface extracellular matrix (ECM) to study chemotaxis either at the population level or at the single cell level with high resolution imaging is presented. The device is produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) and soft lithography. Generation of concentration gradients in the device were simulated and experimentally validated. Then, stable gradients were applied to modulate chemotaxis and chemokinetic response of Jurkat cells as a model for T lymphocyte motility. Live imaging of the gradient chambers allowed to track and quantify Jurkat cell migration patterns. Using this system, it has been found that the strength of the chemotactic response of Jurkat cells to CXCL12 gradient was reduced by increasing surface fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. The chemotaxis of the Jurkat cells was also found to be governed not only by the CXCL12 gradient but also by the average CXCL12 concentration. Distinct migratory behaviors in response to chemokine gradients in different contexts may be physiologically relevant for shaping the host immune response and may serve to optimize the targeting and accumulation of immune cells to the inflammation site. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of using a flow-free gradient chamber for evaluating cross-regulation of cell motility by multiple factors in different biologic processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemotaxis; microfluidics; Jurkat cells; microfabrication; concentration gradient chemotaxis; microfluidics; Jurkat cells; microfabrication; concentration gradient
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sonmez, U.M.; Wood, A.; Justus, K.; Jiang, W.; Syed-Picard, F.; LeDuc, P.R.; Kalinski, P.; Davidson, L.A. Chemotactic Responses of Jurkat Cells in Microfluidic Flow-Free Gradient Chambers. Micromachines 2020, 11, 384. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11040384

AMA Style

Sonmez UM, Wood A, Justus K, Jiang W, Syed-Picard F, LeDuc PR, Kalinski P, Davidson LA. Chemotactic Responses of Jurkat Cells in Microfluidic Flow-Free Gradient Chambers. Micromachines. 2020; 11(4):384. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11040384

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sonmez, Utku M., Adam Wood, Kyle Justus, Weijian Jiang, Fatima Syed-Picard, Philip R. LeDuc, Pawel Kalinski, and Lance A. Davidson 2020. "Chemotactic Responses of Jurkat Cells in Microfluidic Flow-Free Gradient Chambers" Micromachines 11, no. 4: 384. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11040384

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