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Blood and Lymphatic Vasculatures On-Chip Platforms and Their Applications for Organ-Specific In Vitro Modeling

by Aria R. Henderson 1,†, Hyoann Choi 2,† and Esak Lee 1,*
1
Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
2
Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Micromachines 2020, 11(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11020147
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2020 / Accepted: 28 January 2020 / Published: 29 January 2020
The human circulatory system is divided into two complementary and different systems, the cardiovascular and the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular system is mainly concerned with providing nutrients to the body via blood and transporting wastes away from the tissues to be released from the body. The lymphatic system focuses on the transport of fluid, cells, and lipid from interstitial tissue spaces to lymph nodes and, ultimately, to the cardiovascular system, as well as helps coordinate interstitial fluid and lipid homeostasis and immune responses. In addition to having distinct structures from each other, each system also has organ-specific variations throughout the body and both systems play important roles in maintaining homeostasis. Dysfunction of either system leads to devastating and potentially fatal diseases, warranting accurate models of both blood and lymphatic vessels for better studies. As these models also require physiological flow (luminal and interstitial), extracellular matrix conditions, dimensionality, chemotactic biochemical gradient, and stiffness, to better reflect in vivo, three dimensional (3D) microfluidic (on-a-chip) devices are promising platforms to model human physiology and pathology. In this review, we discuss the heterogeneity of both blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as current in vitro models. We, then, explore the organ-specific features of each system with examples in the gut and the brain and the implications of dysfunction of either vasculature in these organs. We close the review with discussions on current in vitro models for specific diseases with an emphasis on on-chip techniques.
Keywords: blood vessels; lymphatic vessels; vasculatures-on-a-chip platforms; organ specificity; in vitro models; brains; intestines; disease models-on-a-chip platforms; micro-physiological systems blood vessels; lymphatic vessels; vasculatures-on-a-chip platforms; organ specificity; in vitro models; brains; intestines; disease models-on-a-chip platforms; micro-physiological systems
MDPI and ACS Style

Henderson, A.R.; Choi, H.; Lee, E. Blood and Lymphatic Vasculatures On-Chip Platforms and Their Applications for Organ-Specific In Vitro Modeling. Micromachines 2020, 11, 147.

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