The skyrocketing popularity of health monitoring has spurred increasing interest in wearable electrochemical biosensors. Compared with the traditionally rigid and bulky electrochemical biosensors, flexible and stretchable devices render a unique capability to conform to the complex, hierarchically textured surfaces of the human body. With a recognition element (e.g., enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, ions) to selectively react with the target analyte, wearable electrochemical biosensors can convert the types and concentrations of chemical changes in the body into electrical signals for easy readout. Initial exploration of wearable electrochemical biosensors integrates electrodes on textile and flexible thin-film substrate materials. A stretchable property is needed for the thin-film device to form an intimate contact with the textured skin surface and to deform with various natural skin motions. Thus, stretchable materials and structures have been exploited to ensure the effective function of a wearable electrochemical biosensor. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent development of flexible and stretchable electrochemical biosensors, including their principles, representative application scenarios (e.g., saliva, tear, sweat, and interstitial fluid), and materials and structures. While great strides have been made in the wearable electrochemical biosensors, challenges still exist, which represents a small fraction of opportunities for the future development of this burgeoning field.
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