Liquid crystal biosensors are based on changes in the orientation of liquid crystal molecules induced by specific bonding events of biomolecules. These biosensors are expected to serve as a promising system to detect biomolecules, biomolecular activity, and even small chemical molecules because they are inexpensive, sensitive, simple, effective, and portable. Herein, we introduce the principle and fabrication of liquid crystal biosensors and review the research progress in signal-amplified technology for liquid crystal sensing and its application in the detection of viruses, bacteria, proteins, nucleic acids, and small chemical molecules. In addition, the current theoretical and practical issues related to liquid crystal biosensors were investigated.
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