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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Metallization of Organically Modified Ceramics for Microfluidic Electrochemical Assays

Drug Research Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, Micronova, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2019, 10(9), 605;
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 12 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Microsystems)
Organically modified ceramic polymers (ORMOCERs) have attracted substantial interest in biomicrofluidic applications owing to their inherent biocompatibility and high optical transparency even in the near-ultraviolet (UV) range. However, the processes for metallization of ORMOCERs as well as for sealing of metallized surfaces have not been fully developed. In this study, we developed metallization processes for a commercial ORMOCER formulation, Ormocomp, covering several commonly used metals, including aluminum, silver, gold, and platinum. The obtained metallizations were systematically characterized with respect to adhesion (with and without adhesion layers), resistivity, and stability during use (in electrochemical assays). In addition to metal adhesion, the possibility for Ormocomp bonding over each metal as well as sufficient step coverage to guarantee conductivity over topographical features (e.g., over microchannel edges) was addressed with a view to the implementation of not only planar, but also three-dimensional on-chip sensing elements. The feasibility of the developed metallization for implementation of microfluidic electrochemical assays was demonstrated by fabricating an electrophoresis separation chip, compatible with a commercial bipotentiostat, and incorporating integrated working, reference, and auxiliary electrodes for amperometric detection of an electrochemically active pharmaceutical, acetaminophen. View Full-Text
Keywords: organically modified ceramics; polymer metallization; adhesive bonding; electrochemical detection organically modified ceramics; polymer metallization; adhesive bonding; electrochemical detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bonabi, A.; Tähkä, S.; Ollikainen, E.; Jokinen, V.; Sikanen, T. Metallization of Organically Modified Ceramics for Microfluidic Electrochemical Assays. Micromachines 2019, 10, 605.

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