Next Article in Journal
Dynamic Fumonisin B2 Production by Aspergillus niger Intented Used in Food Industry in China
Previous Article in Journal
Screening and Validation of Highly-Efficient Insecticidal Conotoxins from a Transcriptome-Based Dataset of Chinese Tubular Cone Snail
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Evaluation of Cyanea capillata Sting Management Protocols Using Ex Vivo and In Vitro Envenomation Models

Discipline of Zoology, School of Natural Sciences, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway H91 W5P7, Ireland
Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
Békésy Laboratory of Neurobiology, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bryan Grieg Fry
Toxins 2017, 9(7), 215;
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
PDF [5645 KB, uploaded 25 July 2017]


Lion’s mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) stings cause severe pain and can lead to dangerous systemic effects, including Irukandji-like syndrome. As is the case for most cnidarian stings, recommended medical protocols in response to such stings lack rigorous scientific support. In this study, we sought to evaluate potential first aid care protocols using previously described envenomation models that allow for direct measurements of venom activity. We found that seawater rinsing, the most commonly recommended method of tentacle removal for this species, induced significant increases in venom delivery, while rinsing with vinegar or Sting No More® Spray did not. Post-sting temperature treatments affected sting severity, with 40 min of hot-pack treatment reducing lysis of sheep’s blood (in agar plates), a direct representation of venom load, by over 90%. Ice pack treatment had no effect on sting severity. These results indicate that sting management protocols for Cyanea need to be revised immediately to discontinue rinsing with seawater and include the use of heat treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Scyphozoa; cnidarian envenomations; first aid; hair jelly Scyphozoa; cnidarian envenomations; first aid; hair jelly

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Doyle, T.K.; Headlam, J.L.; Wilcox, C.L.; MacLoughlin, E.; Yanagihara, A.A. Evaluation of Cyanea capillata Sting Management Protocols Using Ex Vivo and In Vitro Envenomation Models. Toxins 2017, 9, 215.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top