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Toxins 2017, 9(6), 179;

Venom On-a-Chip: A Fast and Efficient Method for Comparative Venomics

Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics Lab, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK
Venomics and Structural Proteomics Laboratory, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Jaume Roig 11, Valencia 46010, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kevin Arbuckle
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 28 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
PDF [2919 KB, uploaded 28 May 2017]


Venom research has attracted an increasing interest in disparate fields, from drug development and pharmacology, to evolutionary biology and ecology, and rational antivenom production. Advances in “-omics” technologies have allowed the characterization of an increasing number of animal venoms, but the methodology currently available is suboptimal for large-scale comparisons of venom profiles. Here, we describe a fast, reproducible and semi-automated protocol for investigating snake venom variability, especially at the intraspecific level, using the Agilent Bioanalyzer on-chip technology. Our protocol generated a phenotype matrix which can be used for robust statistical analysis and correlations of venom variation with ecological correlates, or other extrinsic factors. We also demonstrate the ease and utility of combining on-chip technology with previously fractionated venoms for detection of specific individual toxin proteins. Our study describes a novel strategy for rapid venom discrimination and analysis of compositional variation at multiple taxonomic levels, allowing researchers to tackle evolutionary questions and unveiling the drivers of the incredible biodiversity of venoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bioanalyzer; Crotalus; on-chip electrophoresis; population-level variation; venom composition Bioanalyzer; Crotalus; on-chip electrophoresis; population-level variation; venom composition

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Zancolli, G.; Sanz, L.; Calvete, J.J.; Wüster, W. Venom On-a-Chip: A Fast and Efficient Method for Comparative Venomics. Toxins 2017, 9, 179.

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