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Toxins 2017, 9(5), 157;

Mitigation of Patulin in Fresh and Processed Foods and Beverages

Guelph Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph, ON N1G5C9, Canada
Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerhard Adam
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Patulin is a mycotoxin of food safety concern. It is produced by numerous species of fungi growing on fruits and vegetables. Exposure to the toxin is connected to issues neurological, immunological, and gastrointestinal in nature. Regulatory agencies worldwide have established maximum allowable levels of 50 µg/kg in foods. Despite regulations, surveys continue to find patulin in commercial food and beverage products, in some cases, to exceed the maximum limits. Patulin content in food can be mitigated throughout the food processing chain. Proper handling, storage, and transportation of food can limit fungal growth and patulin production. Common processing techniques including pasteurisation, filtration, and fermentation all have an effect on patulin content in food but individually are not sufficient safety measures. Novel methods to remove or detoxify patulin have been reviewed. Non-thermal processing techniques such as high hydrostatic pressure, UV radiation, enzymatic degradation, binding to microorganisms, and chemical degradation all have potential but have not been optimised. Until further refinement of these methods, the hurdle approach to processing should be used where food safety is concerned. Future development should focus on determining the nature and safety of chemicals produced from the breakdown of patulin in treatment techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: patulin; mycotoxin; mitigation; decontamination; food and beverage; processing patulin; mycotoxin; mitigation; decontamination; food and beverage; processing

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Ioi, J.D.; Zhou, T.; Tsao, R.; F. Marcone, M. Mitigation of Patulin in Fresh and Processed Foods and Beverages. Toxins 2017, 9, 157.

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