Next Article in Journal
A Review: Epigenetic Mechanism in Ochratoxin A Toxicity Studies
Next Article in Special Issue
Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins
Previous Article in Journal
The Preparation and Identification of a Monoclonal Antibody against Citrinin and the Development of Detection via Indirect Competitive ELISA
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ameliorative Effects of Neutral Electrolyzed Water on Growth Performance, Biochemical Constituents, and Histopathological Changes in Turkey Poults during Aflatoxicosis
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2017, 9(4), 111;

Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, via Amendola 122/O, Bari 70126, Italy
Department of Economics, University of Foggia, via Napoli 25, Foggia 71122, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ting Zhou
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
PDF [2150 KB, uploaded 24 March 2017]


Worldwide mycotoxins contamination has a significant impact on animal and human health, and leads to economic losses accounted for billions of dollars annually. Since the application of pre- and post- harvest strategies, including chemical or physical removal, are not sufficiently effective, biological transformation is considered the most promising yet challenging approach to reduce mycotoxins accumulation. Although several microorganisms were reported to degrade mycotoxins, only a few enzymes have been identified, purified and characterized for this activity. This review focuses on the biotransformation of mycotoxins performed with purified enzymes isolated from bacteria, fungi and plants, whose activity was validated in in vitro and in vivo assays, including patented ones and commercial preparations. Furthermore, we will present some applications for detoxifying enzymes in food, feed, biogas and biofuel industries, describing their limitation and potentialities. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; biotransformation; degradation; enzymes; application mycotoxins; biotransformation; degradation; enzymes; application

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Loi, M.; Fanelli, F.; Liuzzi, V.C.; Logrieco, A.F.; Mulè, G. Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives. Toxins 2017, 9, 111.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top