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Toxins 2017, 9(12), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9120401

Expression of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins under Stress Encountered during Food Production and Preservation

1
Applied Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
2
Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 272, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Scott A. Waldman
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat-Stable Enterotoxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [263 KB, uploaded 15 December 2017]

Abstract

Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. Consumption of enterotoxins preformed in food causes violent vomiting and can be fatal in children and the elderly. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, Staphylococcus aureus benefits from crucial competitive advantages in foods with high osmolarity or low pH. During recent years, the long-standing belief in the feasibility of assessing SFP risk based on colony-forming units of S. aureus present in food products has been disproven. Instead, researchers and food business operators are acutely aware of the imminent threat arising from unforeseeable enterotoxin production under stress conditions. This paradigm shift led to a variety of new publications enabling an improved understanding of enterotoxin expression under stress conditions encountered in food. The wealth of data provided by these studies is extremely diverse, as it is based on different methodological approaches, staphylococcal strains, stressors, and enterotoxins. Therefore, in this review, we aggregated and critically evaluated the complex findings of these studies, to provide readers with a current overview of the state of research in the field. View Full-Text
Keywords: staphylococcal food poisoning; enterotoxin; Staphylococcus aureus; strain specific variation; regulatory circuits staphylococcal food poisoning; enterotoxin; Staphylococcus aureus; strain specific variation; regulatory circuits
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Schelin, J.; Susilo, Y.B.; Johler, S. Expression of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins under Stress Encountered during Food Production and Preservation. Toxins 2017, 9, 401.

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