Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Metabolite Profiling of Japanese Black Cattle Naturally Contaminated with Zearalenone and Sterigmatocystin
United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan
Laboratory of Theriogenology, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan
Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0056, Japan
Shepherd Central Livestock Clinic, Kagoshima 899-1611, Japan
Department of Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka
MILS International, Kanazawa 920-0222, Japan
Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0062, Japan
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Laura Anfossi
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9100294
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic profile of cattle fed with or without zearalenone (ZEN) and sterigmatocystin (STC)-contaminated diets using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach. Urinary samples were collected from individual animals (n = 6 per herd) from fattening female Japanese Black (JB) cattle herds (23 months old, 550–600 kg). Herd 1 had persistently high urinary ZEN and STC concentrations due to the presence of contaminated rice straw. Herd 2, the second female JB fattening herd (23 months old, 550–600 kg), received the same dietary feed as Herd 1, with non-contaminated rice straw. Urine samples were collected from Herd 1, two weeks after the contaminated rice straw was replaced with uncontaminated rice straw (Herd 1N). Identified metabolites were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and ANOVA. The PCA revealed that the effects on cattle metabolites depended on ZEN and STC concentrations. The contamination of cattle feed with multiple mycotoxins may alter systemic metabolic processes, including metabolites associated with ATP generation, amino acids, glycine-conjugates, organic acids, and purine bases. The results obtained from Herd 1N indicate that a two-week remedy period was not sufficient to improve the levels of urinary metabolites, suggesting that chronic contamination with mycotoxins may have long-term harmful effects on the systemic metabolism of cattle.