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Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Clinical Pathogens

Servicio de Microbiología, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña-INIBIC, A Coruña 15006, Spain
Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI), Seville 41071, Spain
Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, México
Department of Chemical Engineering Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802 PA, USA
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802 PA, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anton Meinhart
Toxins 2016, 8(7), 227;
Received: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-Antitoxin System in Bacteria)
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are prevalent in bacteria and archaea. Although not essential for normal cell growth, TA systems are implicated in multiple cellular functions associated with survival under stress conditions. Clinical strains of bacteria are currently causing major human health problems as a result of their multidrug resistance, persistence and strong pathogenicity. Here, we present a review of the TA systems described to date and their biological role in human pathogens belonging to the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) and others of clinical relevance (Escherichia coli, Burkholderia spp., Streptococcus spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Better understanding of the mechanisms of action of TA systems will enable the development of new lines of treatment for infections caused by the above-mentioned pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: clinical; pathogens; Toxin-Antitoxin; plasmids; chromosome; resistance; persistance; virulence clinical; pathogens; Toxin-Antitoxin; plasmids; chromosome; resistance; persistance; virulence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández-García, L.; Blasco, L.; Lopez, M.; Bou, G.; García-Contreras, R.; Wood, T.; Tomas, M. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Clinical Pathogens. Toxins 2016, 8, 227.

AMA Style

Fernández-García L, Blasco L, Lopez M, Bou G, García-Contreras R, Wood T, Tomas M. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Clinical Pathogens. Toxins. 2016; 8(7):227.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernández-García, Laura, Lucia Blasco, Maria Lopez, German Bou, Rodolfo García-Contreras, Thomas Wood, and María Tomas. 2016. "Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Clinical Pathogens" Toxins 8, no. 7: 227.

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