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No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children

1
Department of Environmental & Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 139 Oak Creek Building, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2
Department of Psychiatry, Institute for Development & Disability, Oregon Health & Science University, 840 SW Gaines St., Portland, OR 97239, USA
3
College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, 105 Magruder Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: James J. Pestka
Toxins 2016, 8(7), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8070224
Received: 22 May 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years) screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20%) samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322), gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456), exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367), or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00). While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers) and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism; mycotoxins; environmental; urine autism; mycotoxins; environmental; urine
MDPI and ACS Style

Duringer, J.; Fombonne, E.; Craig, M. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children. Toxins 2016, 8, 224. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8070224

AMA Style

Duringer J, Fombonne E, Craig M. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children. Toxins. 2016; 8(7):224. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8070224

Chicago/Turabian Style

Duringer, Jennifer; Fombonne, Eric; Craig, Morrie. 2016. "No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children" Toxins 8, no. 7: 224. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8070224

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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