Next Article in Journal
VacA’s Induction of VacA-Containing Vacuoles (VCVs) and Their Immunomodulatory Activities on Human T Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Regulation of Toxin Production in Clostridium perfringens
Previous Article in Journal
Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Regulatory Networks That Control Clostridium difficile Toxin Synthesis
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 189;

The Sialidase NanS Enhances Non-TcsL Mediated Cytotoxicity of Clostridium sordellii

Infection and Immunity Program, Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Harald Genth, Michel R. Popoff and Holger Barth
Received: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [1272 KB, uploaded 17 June 2016]   |  


The clostridia produce an arsenal of toxins to facilitate their survival within the host environment. TcsL is one of two major toxins produced by Clostridium sordellii, a human and animal pathogen, and is essential for disease pathogenesis of this bacterium. C. sordellii produces many other toxins, but the role that they play in disease is not known, although previous work has suggested that the sialidase enzyme NanS may be involved in the characteristic leukemoid reaction that occurs during severe disease. In this study we investigated the role of NanS in C. sordellii disease pathogenesis. We constructed a nanS mutant and showed that NanS is the only sialidase produced from C. sordellii strain ATCC9714 since sialidase activity could not be detected from the nanS mutant. Complementation with the wild-type gene restored sialidase production to the nanS mutant strain. Cytotoxicity assays using sialidase-enriched culture supernatants applied to gut (Caco2), vaginal (VK2), and cervical cell lines (End1/E6E7 and Ect1/E6E7) showed that NanS was not cytotoxic to these cells. However, the cytotoxic capacity of a toxin-enriched supernatant to the vaginal and cervical cell lines was substantially enhanced in the presence of NanS. TcsL was not the mediator of the observed cytotoxicity since supernatants harvested from a TcsL-deficient strain displayed similar cytotoxicity levels to TcsL-containing supernatants. This study suggests that NanS works synergistically with an unknown toxin or toxins to exacerbate C. sordellii-mediated tissue damage in the host. View Full-Text
Keywords: clostridia; toxins; lethal toxin; sialidase; pathogenesis; Clostridium sordellii clostridia; toxins; lethal toxin; sialidase; pathogenesis; Clostridium sordellii

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Awad, M.M.; Singleton, J.; Lyras, D. The Sialidase NanS Enhances Non-TcsL Mediated Cytotoxicity of Clostridium sordellii. Toxins 2016, 8, 189.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top