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Toxins 2016, 8(3), 62;

Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland

Department of Hygiene of Food of Animal Origin, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yinduo Ji
Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Staphylococcus aureus Toxins)
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This paper describes the results of a 3-year study on the prevalence, enterotoxinogenicity and resistance to antimicrobials of S. aureus isolated on dairy farms with small scale production of raw cow milk cheeses. The samples of raw milk, semi-finished products and the final products as well as swabs were collected between 2011 and 2013 from nine dairy farms in Poland. A total of 244 samples were examined, of which 122 (50.0%) were contaminated with S. aureus including 18 of 26 (69.2%) mature cheese samples with log10 CFU g−1 between <1- and 7.41. In swabs collected from the staff and production environment the highest contamination rate with coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) was detected on hands of cheese makers (4.34 log10 CFU/swab). None of the cheese samples contaminated with CPS contained staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). However, 55 of 122 (45.1%) S. aureus isolates possessed SEs genes, mainly (26 of 55; 47.3%) a combination of the sed, sej and ser genes. Furthermore, the sep (15 of 55; 27.3%) as well as seg and sei (9 of 55; 16.4%) genes were also identified. The remaining S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene (one isolate), the combination of sec, seg and sei (three isolates) as well as the sed, sej, sep and ser markers together (one CPS). Resistance to penicillin (62 of 122 isolates; 50.8%) was the most common among the tested isolates. Some CPS were also resistant to chloramphenicol (7; 5.7%) and tetracycline (5; 4.1%). The obtained results indicated that the analyzed cheeses were safe for consumers. To improve the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products more attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices during the process of cheese manufacturing in some dairy farms. View Full-Text
Keywords: S. aureus; SE genes; antimicrobial resistance; raw milk cheese; public health S. aureus; SE genes; antimicrobial resistance; raw milk cheese; public health

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Rola, J.G.; Czubkowska, A.; Korpysa-Dzirba, W.; Osek, J. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland. Toxins 2016, 8, 62.

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