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Toxins 2016, 8(3), 72;

Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Toxins: A Potential form of Anti-Virulence Therapy

School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute (UMBI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yinduo Ji
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Staphylococcus aureus Toxins)
PDF [2130 KB, uploaded 15 March 2016]


Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen and the leading cause of a wide range of severe clinical infections. The range of diseases reflects the diversity of virulence factors produced by this pathogen. To establish an infection in the host, S. aureus expresses an inclusive set of virulence factors such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and other surface proteins that allow the pathogen to survive under extreme conditions and are essential for the bacteria’s ability to spread through tissues. Expression and secretion of this array of toxins and enzymes are tightly controlled by a number of regulatory systems. S. aureus is also notorious for its ability to resist the arsenal of currently available antibiotics and dissemination of various multidrug-resistant S. aureus clones limits therapeutic options for a S. aureus infection. Recently, the development of anti-virulence therapeutics that neutralize S. aureus toxins or block the pathways that regulate toxin production has shown potential in thwarting the bacteria’s acquisition of antibiotic resistance. In this review, we provide insights into the regulation of S. aureus toxin production and potential anti-virulence strategies that target S. aureus toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; toxins; virulence factors; regulatory system; anti-virulence therapy Staphylococcus aureus; toxins; virulence factors; regulatory system; anti-virulence therapy

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Kong, C.; Neoh, H.-M.; Nathan, S. Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Toxins: A Potential form of Anti-Virulence Therapy. Toxins 2016, 8, 72.

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