Indoxyl Sulfate—Review of Toxicity and Therapeutic Strategies
AbstractIndoxyl sulfate is an extensively studied uremic solute. It is a small molecule that is more than 90% bound to plasma proteins. Indoxyl sulfate is derived from the breakdown of tryptophan by colon microbes. The kidneys achieve high clearances of indoxyl sulfate by tubular secretion, a function not replicated by hemodialysis. Clearance by hemodialysis is limited by protein binding since only the free, unbound solute can diffuse across the membrane. Since the dialytic clearance is much lower than the kidney clearance, indoxyl sulfate accumulates to relatively high plasma levels in hemodialysis patients. Indoxyl sulfate has been most frequently implicated as a contributor to renal disease progression and vascular disease. Studies have suggested that indoxyl sulfate also has adverse effects on bones and the central nervous system. The majority of studies have assessed toxicity in cultured cells and animal models. The toxicity in humans has not yet been proven, as most data have been from association studies. Such toxicity data, albeit inconclusive, have prompted efforts to lower the plasma levels of indoxyl sulfate through dialytic and non-dialytic means. The largest randomized trial showed no benefit in renal disease progression with AST-120. No trials have yet tested cardiovascular or mortality benefit. Without such trials, the toxicity of indoxyl sulfate cannot be firmly established. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Leong, S.C.; Sirich, T.L. Indoxyl Sulfate—Review of Toxicity and Therapeutic Strategies. Toxins 2016, 8, 358.
Leong SC, Sirich TL. Indoxyl Sulfate—Review of Toxicity and Therapeutic Strategies. Toxins. 2016; 8(12):358.Chicago/Turabian Style
Leong, Sheldon C.; Sirich, Tammy L. 2016. "Indoxyl Sulfate—Review of Toxicity and Therapeutic Strategies." Toxins 8, no. 12: 358.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.