Next Article in Journal
Deoxynivalenol Impairs Weight Gain and Affects Markers of Gut Health after Low-Dose, Short-Term Exposure of Growing Pigs
Next Article in Special Issue
Venom Proteins from Parasitoid Wasps and Their Biological Functions
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of Ergot Alkaloids
Previous Article in Special Issue
Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Natural Toxin Bee Venom on Animal Model of Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Exploring the Potential of Venom from Nasonia vitripennis as Therapeutic Agent with High-Throughput Screening Tools

Laboratory of Molecular Entomology and Bee Pathology, Ghent University, S2 Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sokcheon Pak
Toxins 2015, 7(6), 2051-2070;
Received: 17 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
PDF [265 KB, uploaded 3 June 2015]


The venom from the ectoparasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) contains at least 80 different proteins and possibly even more peptides or other small chemical compounds, demonstrating its appealing therapeutic application. To better understand the dynamics of the venom in mammalian cells, two high-throughput screening tools were performed. The venom induced pathways related to an early stress response and activated reporters that suggest the involvement of steroids. Whether these steroids reside from the venom itself or show an induced release/production caused by the venom, still remains unsolved. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β was found to be down-regulated after venom and LPS co-treatment, confirming the anti-inflammatory action of N. vitripennis venom. When analyzing the expression levels of the NF-κB target genes, potentially not only the canonical but also the alternative NF-κB pathway can be affected, possibly explaining some counterintuitive results. It is proposed that next to an NF-κB binding site, the promoter of the genes tested by the PCR array may also contain binding sites for other transcription factors, resulting in a complex puzzle to connect the induced target gene with its respective transcription factor. Interestingly, Nasonia venom altered the expression of some drug targets, presenting the venom with an exciting therapeutical potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nasonia; venom; therapeutic; reporter array; PCR array; NF-κB Nasonia; venom; therapeutic; reporter array; PCR array; NF-κB
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Danneels, E.L.; Formesyn, E.M.; De Graaf, D.C. Exploring the Potential of Venom from Nasonia vitripennis as Therapeutic Agent with High-Throughput Screening Tools. Toxins 2015, 7, 2051-2070.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top