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Open AccessArticle

Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds

by Mariana Greco 1,2,*, Alejandro Pardo 1,2,† and Graciela Pose 2,3,†
Laboratorio de Micología Molecular, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes (UNQ), Roque Sáenz Peña 352, Bernal, Buenos Aires 1876, Argentina
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Avenida Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires 1033, Argentina
Escuela de Producción, Tecnología y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Nacional de Río Negro (UNRN), Mitre 331, Villa Regina 8336, Río Negro, Argentina
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Deepak Bhatnagar and Richard A. Manderville
Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4595-4609;
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 23 September 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaculture; fish feed; Oncorhynchus mykiss; mycobiota; mycotoxins aquaculture; fish feed; Oncorhynchus mykiss; mycobiota; mycotoxins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Greco, M.; Pardo, A.; Pose, G. Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds. Toxins 2015, 7, 4595-4609.

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