Next Article in Journal
Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Potential of Squamocin on the Midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Previous Article in Journal
Toxins Produced by Valsa mali var. mali and Their Relationship with Pathogenicity
Open AccessArticle

Survey of Mycotoxins in Corn Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles from Seventy-Eight Ethanol Plants in Twelve States in the U.S. in 2011

1
Renewable Product Technology Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
2
Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
3
Nutriquest, Mason City, IA 50401, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2014, 6(4), 1155-1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins6041155
Received: 6 February 2014 / Revised: 13 March 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 26 March 2014
Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from <0.50 to 14.62 μg g−1, 15-ADON ranged from <0.10 to 7.55 μg g−1, and ZON ranged from <0.10 to 2.12 μg g−1. None of the DDGS lots contained 3-ADON or NIV. Plants in OH had the highest levels of DON overall (mean of 9.51 μg g−1), and plants in NY, MI, IN, NE, and WI had mean DON levels >1 and <4 μg g−1. Twenty six percent (36/141) of the DDGS lots contained 1.0 to 5.0 μg g−1 DON, 2% (3/141) contained >5.0 and <10.0 μg g−1 DON, and 3% (4/141) contained >10.0 μg g−1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products. View Full-Text
Keywords: DDGS; maize; ethanol; mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; nivalenol; zearalenone DDGS; maize; ethanol; mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; nivalenol; zearalenone
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Khatibi, P.A.; McMaster, N.J.; Musser, R.; III, D.G.S. Survey of Mycotoxins in Corn Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles from Seventy-Eight Ethanol Plants in Twelve States in the U.S. in 2011. Toxins 2014, 6, 1155-1168.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop