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Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3488-3551;

Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

Department of Life Sciences, the Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, SW7 5BD London, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Evolution of Venom Systems)
PDF [2598 KB, uploaded 19 December 2014]


Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: venoms; Remipedia; Glyceridae; Asilidae; Tabanidae; Sciomyzidae; Chilopoda; Pseudoscorpiones; Nemertea; Acanthaster venoms; Remipedia; Glyceridae; Asilidae; Tabanidae; Sciomyzidae; Chilopoda; Pseudoscorpiones; Nemertea; Acanthaster

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Von Reumont, B.M.; Campbell, L.I.; Jenner, R.A. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates. Toxins 2014, 6, 3488-3551.

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