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Open AccessArticle

Protective Effect of Two Yeast Based Feed Additives on Pigs Chronically Exposed to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone

Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3336-3353;
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 28 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; feed additives; pigs; yeast; zearalenone deoxynivalenol; feed additives; pigs; yeast; zearalenone
MDPI and ACS Style

Weaver, A.C.; See, M.T.; Kim, S.W. Protective Effect of Two Yeast Based Feed Additives on Pigs Chronically Exposed to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone. Toxins 2014, 6, 3336-3353.

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