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Review

Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Fish and Shellfish Species: A Case Study of New Zealand in a Changing Environment

1
Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax Street East, Nelson 7010, New Zealand
2
Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2022, 14(5), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050341
Received: 14 April 2022 / Revised: 11 May 2022 / Accepted: 12 May 2022 / Published: 14 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Aquatic Organisms)
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have wide-ranging environmental impacts, including on aquatic species of social and commercial importance. In New Zealand (NZ), strategic growth of the aquaculture industry could be adversely affected by the occurrence of HABs. This review examines HAB species which are known to bloom both globally and in NZ and their effects on commercially important shellfish and fish species. Blooms of Karenia spp. have frequently been associated with mortalities of both fish and shellfish in NZ and the sub-lethal effects of other genera, notably Alexandrium spp., on shellfish (which includes paralysis, a lack of byssus production, and reduced growth) are also of concern. Climate change and anthropogenic impacts may alter HAB population structure and dynamics, as well as the physiological responses of fish and shellfish, potentially further compromising aquatic species. Those HAB species which have been detected in NZ and have the potential to bloom and harm marine life in the future are also discussed. The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) and relevant bioassays are practical tools which enable early detection of novel, problem HAB species and rapid toxin/HAB screening, and new data from HAB monitoring of aquaculture production sites using eDNA are presented. As aquaculture grows to supply a sizable proportion of the world’s protein, the effects of HABs in reducing productivity is of increasing significance. Research into the multiple stressor effects of climate change and HABs on cultured species and using local, recent, HAB strains is needed to accurately assess effects and inform stock management strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: green-lipped mussels; oysters; finfish; salmon; aquaculture; climate change green-lipped mussels; oysters; finfish; salmon; aquaculture; climate change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rolton, A.; Rhodes, L.; Hutson, K.S.; Biessy, L.; Bui, T.; MacKenzie, L.; Symonds, J.E.; Smith, K.F. Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Fish and Shellfish Species: A Case Study of New Zealand in a Changing Environment. Toxins 2022, 14, 341. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050341

AMA Style

Rolton A, Rhodes L, Hutson KS, Biessy L, Bui T, MacKenzie L, Symonds JE, Smith KF. Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Fish and Shellfish Species: A Case Study of New Zealand in a Changing Environment. Toxins. 2022; 14(5):341. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050341

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rolton, Anne, Lesley Rhodes, Kate S. Hutson, Laura Biessy, Tony Bui, Lincoln MacKenzie, Jane E. Symonds, and Kirsty F. Smith. 2022. "Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Fish and Shellfish Species: A Case Study of New Zealand in a Changing Environment" Toxins 14, no. 5: 341. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050341

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