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Article

Characterization of Ugandan Endemic Aspergillus Species and Identification of Non-Aflatoxigenic Isolates for Potential Biocontrol of Aflatoxins

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Department of Plants and Crops, Campus Schoonmeersen Building C, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Multifunctional Research Laboratories, Gulu University, Gulu P.O. Box 166, Uganda
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gulu University, Gulu P.O. Box 166, Uganda
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2022, 14(5), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050304
Received: 25 February 2022 / Revised: 19 April 2022 / Accepted: 24 April 2022 / Published: 26 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Status and Challenges of Aflatoxin Biocontrol Strategies)
Acute stunting in children, liver cancer, and death often occur due to human exposure to aflatoxins in food. The severity of aflatoxin contamination depends on the type of Aspergillus fungus infecting the crops. In this study, Aspergillus species were isolated from households’ staple foods and were characterized for different aflatoxin chemotypes. The non-aflatoxigenic chemotypes were evaluated for their ability to reduce aflatoxin levels produced by aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains on maize grains. Aspergillus flavus (63%), A. tamarii (14%), and A. niger (23%) were the main species present. The A. flavus species included isolates that predominantly produced aflatoxins B1 and B2, with most isolates producing a high amount (>20 ug/µL) of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and a marginal proportion of them also producing G aflatoxins with a higher level of aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) than AFB1. Some non-aflatoxigenic A. tamarii demonstrated a strong ability to reduce the level of AFB1 by more than 95% when co-inoculated with aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Therefore, field evaluation of both non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus and A. tamarii would be an important step toward developing biocontrol agents for mitigating field contamination of crops with aflatoxins in Uganda. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus tamarii; aflatoxin B1 Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus tamarii; aflatoxin B1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wokorach, G.; Landschoot, S.; Lakot, A.; Karyeija, S.A.; Audenaert, K.; Echodu, R.; Haesaert, G. Characterization of Ugandan Endemic Aspergillus Species and Identification of Non-Aflatoxigenic Isolates for Potential Biocontrol of Aflatoxins. Toxins 2022, 14, 304. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050304

AMA Style

Wokorach G, Landschoot S, Lakot A, Karyeija SA, Audenaert K, Echodu R, Haesaert G. Characterization of Ugandan Endemic Aspergillus Species and Identification of Non-Aflatoxigenic Isolates for Potential Biocontrol of Aflatoxins. Toxins. 2022; 14(5):304. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050304

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wokorach, Godfrey, Sofie Landschoot, Amerida Lakot, Sidney A. Karyeija, Kris Audenaert, Richard Echodu, and Geert Haesaert. 2022. "Characterization of Ugandan Endemic Aspergillus Species and Identification of Non-Aflatoxigenic Isolates for Potential Biocontrol of Aflatoxins" Toxins 14, no. 5: 304. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050304

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