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Distribution of the Emetic Toxin Cereulide in Cow Milk

Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science, Department of Molecular Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Lise-Meitner-Str. 34, 85354 Freising, Germany
Institute of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(8), 528;
Received: 7 July 2021 / Revised: 22 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 28 July 2021
Bacillus cereus is frequently associated with food-borne intoxications, and its emetic toxin cereulide causes emesis and nausea after consumption of contaminated foods. The major source for contamination is found within contaminated raw materials containing the highly chemically resistant cereulide, independent of vegetative bacteria cells. Up to date, non-existing removal strategies for cereulide evoke the question of how the toxin is distributed within a food sample, especially cow milk. Milk samples with different milk fat contents were incubated with purified cereulide, separated by centrifugation into a lipid and an aqueous phase, and cereulide was quantified in both fractions by SIDA-LC-MS/MS. By artificially increasing the milk fat content from 0.5% to 50%, the amount of cereulide recovered in the lipid phase and could be augmented from 13.3 to 78.6%. Further, the ratio of cereulide increased in the lipid phase of milk with additional plant-based lipid (sunflower oil) to 47.8%. This demonstrated a clear affinity of cereulide towards the hydrophobic, lipid phase, aligning with cereulide’s naturally strong hydrophobic properties. Therefore, an intensified cereulide analysis of lipid enriched dairy products to prevent severe cereulide intoxications or cross-contamination in processed foods is suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: B. cereus; lipids; interaction; food safety; LC-MS/MS B. cereus; lipids; interaction; food safety; LC-MS/MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walser, V.; Kranzler, M.; Dawid, C.; Ehling-Schulz, M.; Stark, T.D.; Hofmann, T.F. Distribution of the Emetic Toxin Cereulide in Cow Milk. Toxins 2021, 13, 528.

AMA Style

Walser V, Kranzler M, Dawid C, Ehling-Schulz M, Stark TD, Hofmann TF. Distribution of the Emetic Toxin Cereulide in Cow Milk. Toxins. 2021; 13(8):528.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walser, Veronika, Markus Kranzler, Corinna Dawid, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Timo D. Stark, and Thomas F. Hofmann 2021. "Distribution of the Emetic Toxin Cereulide in Cow Milk" Toxins 13, no. 8: 528.

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