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Impact of Phytochemicals on Viability and Cereulide Toxin Synthesis in Bacillus cereus Revealed by a Novel High-Throughput Method, Coupling an AlamarBlue-Based Assay with UPLC-MS/MS

1
Institute of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, Vetmeduni Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science, Department of Molecular Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Lise-Meitner-Str. 34, 85354 Freising, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Dr. Brill + KEBOS GmbH & Co.KG—Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology, Grützmühlenweg 48, 22339 Hamburg, Germany.
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090672
Received: 27 August 2021 / Revised: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 18 September 2021 / Published: 21 September 2021
Due to its food-poisoning potential, Bacillus cereus has attracted the attention of the food industry. The cereulide-toxin-producing subgroup is of particular concern, as cereulide toxin is implicated in broadscale food-borne outbreaks and occasionally causes fatalities. The health risks associated with long-term cereulide exposure at low doses remain largely unexplored. Natural substances, such as plant-based secondary metabolites, are widely known for their effective antibacterial potential, which makes them promising as ingredients in food and also as a surrogate for antibiotics. In this work, we tested a range of structurally related phytochemicals, including benzene derivatives, monoterpenes, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and vitamins, for their inhibitory effects on the growth of B. cereus and the production of cereulide toxin. For this purpose, we developed a high-throughput, small-scale method which allowed us to analyze B. cereus survival and cereulide production simultaneously in one workflow by coupling an AlamarBlue-based viability assay with ultraperformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This combinatory method allowed us to identify not only phytochemicals with high antibacterial potential, but also ones specifically eradicating cereulide biosynthesis already at very low concentrations, such as gingerol and curcumin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus cereus; cereulide; food additives; high-throughput micro-scale method Bacillus cereus; cereulide; food additives; high-throughput micro-scale method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kranzler, M.; Frenzel, E.; Walser, V.; Hofmann, T.F.; Stark, T.D.; Ehling-Schulz, M. Impact of Phytochemicals on Viability and Cereulide Toxin Synthesis in Bacillus cereus Revealed by a Novel High-Throughput Method, Coupling an AlamarBlue-Based Assay with UPLC-MS/MS. Toxins 2021, 13, 672. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090672

AMA Style

Kranzler M, Frenzel E, Walser V, Hofmann TF, Stark TD, Ehling-Schulz M. Impact of Phytochemicals on Viability and Cereulide Toxin Synthesis in Bacillus cereus Revealed by a Novel High-Throughput Method, Coupling an AlamarBlue-Based Assay with UPLC-MS/MS. Toxins. 2021; 13(9):672. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090672

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kranzler, Markus, Elrike Frenzel, Veronika Walser, Thomas F. Hofmann, Timo D. Stark, and Monika Ehling-Schulz. 2021. "Impact of Phytochemicals on Viability and Cereulide Toxin Synthesis in Bacillus cereus Revealed by a Novel High-Throughput Method, Coupling an AlamarBlue-Based Assay with UPLC-MS/MS" Toxins 13, no. 9: 672. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090672

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