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Article

Physiological Effects of Deoxynivalenol from Naturally Contaminated Corn on Cerebral Tryptophan Metabolism, Behavioral Response, Gastrointestinal Immune Status and Health in Pigs Following a Pair-Feeding Model

by 1,2,†, 1,3,† and 1,*
1
Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
2
APC, Ankeny, IA 50023, USA
3
Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY 50023, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally.
Toxins 2021, 13(6), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060393
Received: 29 April 2021 / Revised: 25 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 30 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins in Feed and Food)
This study investigated the impact of deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated feed on pig growth, immune status, organ health, brain serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and behavior. Sixteen individually housed pigs (25.57 ± 0.98 kg, age 9 weeks) were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: without DON (CON) or with 3.8 mg/kg of DON (MT). Pigs were pair-fed to eliminate differences in feed intake (equal tryptophan (Trp) intake). Pigs fed CON received a daily ration based on the ad libitum feed consumption of their MT pair-mate. Performance was determined over 21 days and blood collected for immunological and oxidative stress parameters. Behavior was recorded for 12 h on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. After 21 days, pigs were euthanized to collect tissues for immune parameters, gut morphology and brain serotonin levels. Overall, pigs fed MT had greater weight gain compared with CON. Immunological and oxidative stress parameters were unaffected, but pigs fed MT had reduced villus height, crypt depth and villus-to-crypt ratio in the jejunum. Pigs consuming MT had reduced concentration of 5-HT and increased 5-HT turnover in the hypothalamus. Mycotoxin-fed pigs spent more time lying and sitting, and less time standing and drinking. In conclusion, consumption of DON impacted gastrointestinal tract structure, altered behavior and changed Trp metabolism through increasing 5-HT turnover in hypothalamus. View Full-Text
Keywords: behavior; deoxynivalenol; gut morphology; nursery pigs; serotonin; tryptophan behavior; deoxynivalenol; gut morphology; nursery pigs; serotonin; tryptophan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shen, Y.-B.; Weaver, A.C.; Kim, S.W. Physiological Effects of Deoxynivalenol from Naturally Contaminated Corn on Cerebral Tryptophan Metabolism, Behavioral Response, Gastrointestinal Immune Status and Health in Pigs Following a Pair-Feeding Model. Toxins 2021, 13, 393. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060393

AMA Style

Shen Y-B, Weaver AC, Kim SW. Physiological Effects of Deoxynivalenol from Naturally Contaminated Corn on Cerebral Tryptophan Metabolism, Behavioral Response, Gastrointestinal Immune Status and Health in Pigs Following a Pair-Feeding Model. Toxins. 2021; 13(6):393. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060393

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shen, Yan-Bin, Alexandra C. Weaver, and Sung W. Kim. 2021. "Physiological Effects of Deoxynivalenol from Naturally Contaminated Corn on Cerebral Tryptophan Metabolism, Behavioral Response, Gastrointestinal Immune Status and Health in Pigs Following a Pair-Feeding Model" Toxins 13, no. 6: 393. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060393

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