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Article

Mycotoxin Occurrence and Risk Assessment in Gluten-Free Pasta through UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS

1
Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent A. Estellés s/n, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Pharmacy, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via D. Montesano, 80131 Napoli, Italy
3
UNESCO Chair of Health Education and Sustainable Development at University of Naples, 80131 Napoli, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(5), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050305
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 21 April 2021 / Accepted: 23 April 2021 / Published: 25 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Food)
Celiac disease (CD) is a genetic-based autoimmune disorder which is characterized by inflammation in the small intestinal mucosa due to the intolerance to gluten. Celiac people should consume products without gluten, which are elaborated mainly with maize or other cereals. Contamination of cereals with mycotoxins, such as fumonisins (FBs) and aflatoxins (AFs) is frequently reported worldwide. Therefore, food ingestion is the main source of mycotoxin exposure. A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 21 mycotoxins in gluten-free pasta, commonly consumed by celiac population as an alternative to conventional pasta. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS) was used for analyte separation and detection. The mycotoxins included in this work were those widely reported to occur in cereal samples, namely, ochratoxin-A (OTA), aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-AcDON and 15-AcDON, respectively), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenone-X, (FUS-X), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2, respectively), enniatins (ENN A, ENN A1, ENN B and ENN B1) and beauvericin (BEA). The validated method was successfully applied to 84 gluten-free pasta samples collected from several local markets of Campania region (Italy) during September to November 2020 to monitor the occurrence of mycotoxins and to assess the exposure to these food contaminants. A significant number of samples (95%) showed mycotoxin contamination, being Fusarium mycotoxins (FB1, ZON and DON) the most commonly detected ones. Regarding the risk assessment, the higher exposures were obtained for NIV, DON and FB1 for children and teenagers age group which can be explained due to their lower body weight. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; gluten-free pasta; liquid-chromatography; HRMS-Orbitrap; multiresidue method; exposure mycotoxins; gluten-free pasta; liquid-chromatography; HRMS-Orbitrap; multiresidue method; exposure
MDPI and ACS Style

Tolosa, J.; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Y.; Graziani, G.; Gaspari, A.; Ferrer, E.; Mañes, J.; Ritieni, A. Mycotoxin Occurrence and Risk Assessment in Gluten-Free Pasta through UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS. Toxins 2021, 13, 305. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050305

AMA Style

Tolosa J, Rodríguez-Carrasco Y, Graziani G, Gaspari A, Ferrer E, Mañes J, Ritieni A. Mycotoxin Occurrence and Risk Assessment in Gluten-Free Pasta through UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS. Toxins. 2021; 13(5):305. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050305

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tolosa, Josefa, Yelko Rodríguez-Carrasco, Giulia Graziani, Anna Gaspari, Emilia Ferrer, Jordi Mañes, and Alberto Ritieni. 2021. "Mycotoxin Occurrence and Risk Assessment in Gluten-Free Pasta through UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS" Toxins 13, no. 5: 305. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050305

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