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A Review of Nephrotoxicity of Microcystins
Article

Degradation of Multiple Peptides by Microcystin-Degrader Paucibacter toxinivorans (2C20)

1
Biophysics Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 373 Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro 21941-901, Brazil
2
School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, The Sir Ian Wood Building, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(4), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040265
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 3 April 2021 / Accepted: 4 April 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacterial Toxins: Their Occurrence, Detection and Removal)
Since conventional drinking water treatments applied in different countries are inefficient at eliminating potentially toxic cyanobacterial peptides, a number of bacteria have been studied as an alternative to biological filters for the removal of microcystins (MCs). Here, we evaluated the degradation of not only MCs variants (-LR/DM-LR/-RR/-LF/-YR), but also non-MCs peptides (anabaenopeptins A/B, aerucyclamides A/D) by Paucibactertoxinivorans over 7 days. We also evaluated the degradation rate of MC-LR in a peptide mix, with all peptides tested, and in the presence of M. aeruginosa crude extract. Furthermore, biodegradation was assessed for non-cyanobacterial peptides with different chemical structures, such as cyclosporin A, (Glu1)-fibrinopeptide-B, leucine-enkephalin, and oxytocin. When cyanopeptides were individually added, P. toxinivorans degraded them (99%) over 7 days, except for MC-LR and -RR, which decreased by about 85 and 90%, respectively. The degradation rate of MC-LR decreased in the peptide mix compared to an individual compound, however, in the presence of the Microcystis extract, it was degraded considerably faster (3 days). It was noted that biodegradation rates decreased in the mix for all MCs while non-MCs peptides were immediately degraded. UPLC–QTOF–MS/MS allowed us to identify two linear biodegradation products for MC-LR and MC-YR, and one for MC-LF. Furthermore, P. toxinivorans demonstrated complete degradation of non-cyanobacterial peptides, with the exception of oxytocin, where around 50% remained after 7 days. Thus, although P. toxinivorans was previously identified as a MC-degrader, it also degrades a wide range of peptides under a range of conditions, which could be optimized as a potential biological tool for water treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanopeptides; microcystin; anabaenopeptin; aerucyclamide; bacterial degradation rate; UPLC-MS cyanopeptides; microcystin; anabaenopeptin; aerucyclamide; bacterial degradation rate; UPLC-MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santos, A.A.; Soldatou, S.; de Magalhães, V.F.; Azevedo, S.M.F.O.; Camacho-Muñoz, D.; Lawton, L.A.; Edwards, C. Degradation of Multiple Peptides by Microcystin-Degrader Paucibacter toxinivorans (2C20). Toxins 2021, 13, 265. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040265

AMA Style

Santos AA, Soldatou S, de Magalhães VF, Azevedo SMFO, Camacho-Muñoz D, Lawton LA, Edwards C. Degradation of Multiple Peptides by Microcystin-Degrader Paucibacter toxinivorans (2C20). Toxins. 2021; 13(4):265. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040265

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santos, Allan A., Sylvia Soldatou, Valeria F. de Magalhães, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo, Dolores Camacho-Muñoz, Linda A. Lawton, and Christine Edwards. 2021. "Degradation of Multiple Peptides by Microcystin-Degrader Paucibacter toxinivorans (2C20)" Toxins 13, no. 4: 265. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040265

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