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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Temperature during Drying and Storage of Dried Figs on Growth, Gene Expression and Aflatoxin Production

1
Junta de Extremadura, Finca La Orden-Valdesequera Research Centre (CICYTEX), Horticulture, 06187 Guadajira, Spain
2
Food Quality and Microbiology, School of Agricultural Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Adolfo Suárez, s/n, 06007 Badajoz, Spain
3
University Institute for the Research in Agrifood Resources (INURA), University of Extremadura, Avda. de la Investigación s/n, 06006 Badajoz, Spain
4
Junta de Extremadura, Agri-Food Technological Institute of Extremadura (INTAEX-CICYTEX), Department of Postharvest Science Avda, 06007 Badajoz, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020134
Received: 4 January 2021 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 11 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research)
Dried fig is susceptible to infection by Aspergillus flavus, the major producer of the carcinogenic mycotoxins. This fruit may be contaminated by the fungus throughout the entire chain production, especially during natural sun-drying, post-harvest, industrial processing, storage, and fruit retailing. Correct management of such critical stages is necessary to prevent mould growth and mycotoxin accumulation, with temperature being one of the main factors associated with these problems. The effect of different temperatures (5, 16, 25, 30, and 37 °C) related to dried-fig processing on growth, one of the regulatory genes of aflatoxin pathway (aflR) and mycotoxin production by A. flavus, was assessed. Firstly, growth and aflatoxin production of 11 A. flavus strains were checked before selecting two strains (M30 and M144) for in-depth studies. Findings showed that there were enormous differences in aflatoxin amounts and related-gene expression between the two selected strains. Based on the results, mild temperatures, and changes in temperature during drying and storage of dried figs should be avoided. Drying should be conducted at temperatures >30 °C and close to 37 °C, while industry processing, storage, and retailing of dried figs are advisable to perform at refrigeration temperatures (<10 °C) to avoid mycotoxin production. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; toxigenic moulds; food safety; figs mycotoxin; toxigenic moulds; food safety; figs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Galván, A.I.; Rodríguez, A.; Martín, A.; Serradilla, M.J.; Martínez-Dorado, A.; Córdoba, M.d.G. Effect of Temperature during Drying and Storage of Dried Figs on Growth, Gene Expression and Aflatoxin Production. Toxins 2021, 13, 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020134

AMA Style

Galván AI, Rodríguez A, Martín A, Serradilla MJ, Martínez-Dorado A, Córdoba MdG. Effect of Temperature during Drying and Storage of Dried Figs on Growth, Gene Expression and Aflatoxin Production. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):134. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Galván, Ana I.; Rodríguez, Alicia; Martín, Alberto; Serradilla, Manuel J.; Martínez-Dorado, Ana; Córdoba, María d.G. 2021. "Effect of Temperature during Drying and Storage of Dried Figs on Growth, Gene Expression and Aflatoxin Production" Toxins 13, no. 2: 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020134

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