Toxins are the major pathogenicity factors produced by numerous bacteria involved in severe diseases in humans and animals. Certain pathogenic bacteria synthesize only one toxin which is responsible for all the symptoms and outcome of the disease. For example, botulinum toxins (BoNTs) and tetanus toxin (TeNT) are the unique causal factors of botulism and tetanus, respectively. Other bacteria attack the host organism by a set of multiple toxins which synergistically act to promote the disease. This is the case of Clostridium
strains which secrete wide ranges of toxins such as pore-forming toxins, membrane phospholipid damaging toxins, and other cytotoxins and toxins interacting with the immune system involved in gangrene lesion generation.
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