Next Article in Journal
Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling in the Ileum and Colon of Gnotobiotic Piglets Infected with Salmonella Typhimurium or Its Isogenic ∆rfa Mutants
Next Article in Special Issue
Small Pore-Forming Toxins Different Membrane Area Binding and Ca2+ Permeability of Pores Determine Cellular Resistance of Monocytic Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Baculovirus Expression and Functional Analysis of Vpa2 Proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Anthrax Edema and Lethal Toxins Differentially Target Human Lung and Blood Phagocytes
Open AccessReview

Spatiotemporal Regulation of Vibrio Exotoxins by HlyU and Other Transcriptional Regulators

Department of Food Science and Engineering, ELTEC College of Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
Toxins 2020, 12(9), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090544
Received: 8 August 2020 / Revised: 17 August 2020 / Accepted: 19 August 2020 / Published: 22 August 2020
After invading a host, bacterial pathogens secrete diverse protein toxins to disrupt host defense systems. To ensure successful infection, however, pathogens must precisely regulate the expression of those exotoxins because uncontrolled toxin production squanders energy. Furthermore, inappropriate toxin secretion can trigger host immune responses that are detrimental to the invading pathogens. Therefore, bacterial pathogens use diverse transcriptional regulators to accurately regulate multiple exotoxin genes based on spatiotemporal conditions. This review covers three major exotoxins in pathogenic Vibrio species and their transcriptional regulation systems. When Vibrio encounters a host, genes encoding cytolysin/hemolysin, multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin, and secreted phospholipases are coordinately regulated by the transcriptional regulator HlyU. At the same time, however, they are distinctly controlled by a variety of other transcriptional regulators. How this coordinated but distinct regulation of exotoxins makes Vibrio species successful pathogens? In addition, anti-virulence strategies that target the coordinating master regulator HlyU and related future research directions are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: exotoxin; transcriptional regulation; hemolysin; cytolysin; MARTX toxin; secreted phospholipase; HlyU; Vibrio species exotoxin; transcriptional regulation; hemolysin; cytolysin; MARTX toxin; secreted phospholipase; HlyU; Vibrio species
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, B.S. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Vibrio Exotoxins by HlyU and Other Transcriptional Regulators. Toxins 2020, 12, 544. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090544

AMA Style

Kim BS. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Vibrio Exotoxins by HlyU and Other Transcriptional Regulators. Toxins. 2020; 12(9):544. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090544

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Byoung S. 2020. "Spatiotemporal Regulation of Vibrio Exotoxins by HlyU and Other Transcriptional Regulators" Toxins 12, no. 9: 544. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090544

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop