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Engineering of Ribosome-inactivating Proteins for Improving Pharmacological Properties
Open AccessArticle

Antiviral Activity of PD-L1 and PD-L4, Type 1 Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Leaves of Phytolacca dioica L. in the Pathosystem Phaseolus vulgaris–Tobacco Necrosis Virus (TNV)

1
Agri-food and Environmental Microbiology Platform (PiMiAA), Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, viale Europa, 11, 25123 Brescia, Italy
2
Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), University of Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy
3
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(8), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12080524
Received: 16 July 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins)
Using the pathosystem Phaseolus vulgaris–tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), we demonstrated that PD-L1 and PD-L4, type-1 ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) from leaves of Phytolacca dioica L., possess a strong antiviral activity. This activity was exerted both when the RIPs and the virus were inoculated together in the same leaf and when they were inoculated or applied separately in the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. This suggests that virus inhibition would mainly occur inside plant cells at the onset of infection. Histochemical studies showed that both PD-L1 and PD-L4 were not able to induce oxidative burst and cell death in treated leaves, which were instead elicited by inoculation of the virus alone. Furthermore, when RIPs and TNV were inoculated together, no sign of H2O2 deposits and cell death were detectable, indicating that the virus could have been inactivated in a very early stage of infection, before the elicitation of a hypersensitivity reaction. In conclusion, the strong antiviral activity is likely exerted inside host cells as soon the virus disassembles to start translation of the viral genome. This activity is likely directed towards both viral and ribosomal RNA, explaining the almost complete abolition of infection when virus and RIP enter together into the cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiviral proteins; ribosome inactivating proteins; Phytolacca dioica L.; protein purification; tobacco necrosis virus antiviral proteins; ribosome inactivating proteins; Phytolacca dioica L.; protein purification; tobacco necrosis virus
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Bulgari, D.; Landi, N.; Ragucci, S.; Faoro, F.; Di Maro, A. Antiviral Activity of PD-L1 and PD-L4, Type 1 Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Leaves of Phytolacca dioica L. in the Pathosystem Phaseolus vulgaris–Tobacco Necrosis Virus (TNV). Toxins 2020, 12, 524.

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