Next Article in Journal
Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Managing Sleep Bruxism: A Randomized and Placebo—Controlled Trial
Previous Article in Journal
Therapeutic Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Sensory Bladder Disorders—From Bench to Bedside
Open AccessReview

Engineering of Ribosome-inactivating Proteins for Improving Pharmacological Properties

1
School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong 99077, China
2
Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, National Kunming High level Biosafety Research Center for Non-human Primates, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030167
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 March 2020 / Published: 9 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins)
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases, which depurinate a specific adenine residue in the conserved α-sarcin/ricin loop (α-SRL) of rRNA. This loop is important for anchoring elongation factor (EF-G for prokaryote or eEF2 for eukaryote) in mRNA translocation. Translation is inhibited after the attack. RIPs therefore may have been applied for anti-cancer, and anti-virus and other therapeutic applications. The main obstacles of treatment with RIPs include short plasma half-life, non-selective cytotoxicity and antigenicity. This review focuses on the strategies used to improve the pharmacological properties of RIPs on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancers. Coupling with polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases plasma time and reduces antigenicity. RIPs conjugated with antibodies to form immunotoxins increase the selective toxicity to target cells. The prospects for future development on the engineering of RIPs for improving their pharmacological properties are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: ribosome inactivating protein; therapeutic applications; immunotoxin; anti-HIV; anti-cancer ribosome inactivating protein; therapeutic applications; immunotoxin; anti-HIV; anti-cancer
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, J.-Q.; Zhu, Z.-N.; Zheng, Y.-T.; Shaw, P.-C. Engineering of Ribosome-inactivating Proteins for Improving Pharmacological Properties. Toxins 2020, 12, 167.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop