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Open AccessArticle

Novel Ergot Alkaloids Production from Penicillium citrinum Employing Response Surface Methodology Technique

1
Department of Botany, GC University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
2
Food and Biotechnology Research Center, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3
Department of Economics, University of Management & Technology, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
4
Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
5
Sustainable Development Study Center, GC University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(7), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070427
Received: 7 April 2020 / Revised: 28 May 2020 / Accepted: 30 May 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Impact of Ergot Alkaloids)
Ergot alkaloids are novel pharmaceutical and therapeutic agents synthesized in this study using fungal species Penicillium citrinum. To get the maximum yield of ergot alkaloids a statistical process of response surface methodology was employed using surface culture fermentation technique. Initially, the strain of Penicillium was improved using physical (ultraviolet (UV) and chemical (ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) treatments to get the maximum yield of ergot alkaloids through surface culture fermentation technique. After improving the strain, survival rate of colonies of Penicillium citrinum treated with UV and EMS was observed. Only 2.04% living colonies were observed after 150 min of exposure of Penicillium citrinum in UV light and 3.2% living colonies were observed after 20 min of the exposure in EMS. The mutated strains of Penicillium citrinum were screened for their production of ergot alkaloids and after fermentation experiments, maximum yield was obtained from PCUV-4 and PCEMS-1 strains. After strain improvement, Plackett–Burman design (PBD) and Box–Behnken design (BBD) of RSM were employed and 10-fold yield enhancement (35.60 mg/100 mL) of ergot alkaloids was achieved. This enhancement in yield of ergot alkaloids proved the positive impacts of RSM and UV on the yield of ergot alkaloids. The study provides a cost effective, economical and sustainable process to produce medically important ergot alkaloids which can be used in various pharmaceutical formulations to treat human diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: ergot alkaloids; strain improvement; UV; EMS; Penicillium citrinum; response surface methodology; PBD; BBD ergot alkaloids; strain improvement; UV; EMS; Penicillium citrinum; response surface methodology; PBD; BBD
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Shahid, M.G.; Nadeem, M.; Gulzar, A.; Saleem, M.; Rehman, H.; Ghafoor, G.Z.; Hayyat, M.U.; Shahzad, L.; Arif, R.; Nelofer, R. Novel Ergot Alkaloids Production from Penicillium citrinum Employing Response Surface Methodology Technique. Toxins 2020, 12, 427.

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