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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mycotoxin Modifiers and Mycotoxin Binders by Using an In Vitro Rumen Model as a First Screening Tool

1
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
2
Department of Animal Sciences and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
4
Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
5
Chair of Analytical Food Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, Maximus-von-Imhof-Forum 2, 85354 Freising, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contribute equally to this work.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060405
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 10 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal and Control of Mycotoxins Contamination)
Ruminal microbiota of cattle are not able to detoxify all mycotoxins. In addition, detoxification can be hampered by adverse ruminal conditions (e.g., low ruminal pH). Hence, in the cattle husbandry, mycotoxin binders and modifiers could be used to prevent animal exposure to mycotoxins. In this study, an in vitro rumen model, including feed matrix, was established as first screening tool to test the efficacy of five products claiming to detoxify mycotoxins. The detoxifiers had different modes of action: (a) binding (three products); (b) enzymatic detoxification of zearalenone (ZEN; one product, ZenA); and (c) bacterial transformation of trichothecenes (one product, BBSH 797). For the mycotoxin binders, the binding to the mycotoxins enniatin B (ENN B), roquefortine C (ROQ-C), mycophenolic acid (MPA), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZEN) were tested at a dose recommended by the manufacturers. The in vitro model demonstrated that all binders adsorbed ENN B to a certain extent, while only one of the binders also partially adsorbed ROQ-C. The binders did not change the concentrations of the other mycotoxins in the ruminal fluid. The enzyme ZenA detoxified ZEN very quickly and prevented the formation of the more toxic metabolite α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), both at normal (6.8) and low ruminal pH (5.8). The addition of BBSH 797 enhanced detoxification of DON and NIV, both at normal and low ruminal pH. The in vitro rumen model demonstrated that the addition of ZenA seems to be a very promising strategy to prevent estrogenic effects of ZEN contaminated feed, and BBSH 797 is efficient in the detoxification of trichothecenes. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; maize silage; mycotoxin binders; mycotoxin modifiers; efficacy testing mycotoxins; maize silage; mycotoxin binders; mycotoxin modifiers; efficacy testing
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Debevere, S.; Schatzmayr, D.; Reisinger, N.; Aleschko, M.; Haesaert, G.; Rychlik, M.; Croubels, S.; Fievez, V. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mycotoxin Modifiers and Mycotoxin Binders by Using an In Vitro Rumen Model as a First Screening Tool. Toxins 2020, 12, 405.

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