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Open AccessArticle

Cyclic Imines (CIs) in Mussels from North-Central Adriatic Sea: First Evidence of Gymnodimine A in Italy

1
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Umbria e delle Marche “Togo Rosati”, Via Cupa di Posatora 3, 60131 Ancona, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060370
Received: 6 May 2020 / Revised: 25 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Cyclic imines (CIs) are emerging marine lipophilic toxins (MLTs) occurring in microalgae and shellfish worldwide. The present research aimed to study CIs in mussels farmed in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) during the period 2014–2015. Twenty-eight different compounds belonging to spirolides (SPXs), gymnodimines (GYMs), pinnatoxins (PnTXs) and pteriatoxins (PtTXs) were analyzed by the official method for MLTs in 139 mussel samples collected along the Marche coast. Compounds including 13-desmethyl spirolide C (13-desMe SPX C) and 13,19-didesmethyl spirolide C (13,19-didesMe SPX C) were detected in 86% of the samples. The highest levels were generally reported in the first half of the year reaching 29.2 µg kg−1 in January/March with a decreasing trend until June. GYM A, for the first time reported in Italian mussels, was found in 84% of the samples, reaching the highest concentration in summer (12.1 µg kg−1). GYM A and SPXs, submitted to tissue distribution studies, showed the tendency to accumulate mostly in mussel digestive glands. Even if SPX levels in mussels were largely below the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference of 400 μg SPXs kg−1, most of the samples contained CIs for the large part of the year. Since chronic toxicity data are still missing, monitoring is surely recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: Adriatic Sea; gymnodimines (GYMs); spirolides (SPXs); bivalves; LC–MS/MS; Mytilus galloprovincialis; pinnatoxins (PnTXs); pteriatoxins (PtTXs) Adriatic Sea; gymnodimines (GYMs); spirolides (SPXs); bivalves; LC–MS/MS; Mytilus galloprovincialis; pinnatoxins (PnTXs); pteriatoxins (PtTXs)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bacchiocchi, S.; Siracusa, M.; Campacci, D.; Ciriaci, M.; Dubbini, A.; Tavoloni, T.; Stramenga, A.; Gorbi, S.; Piersanti, A. Cyclic Imines (CIs) in Mussels from North-Central Adriatic Sea: First Evidence of Gymnodimine A in Italy. Toxins 2020, 12, 370.

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