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Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin (-Like) Genes sey, selw, selx, selz, sel26 and sel27 in Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

1
Department of Hygiene, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan
2
Sapporo Clinical Laboratory, Inc., Sapporo 060-0005, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(5), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12050347
Received: 11 April 2020 / Revised: 20 May 2020 / Accepted: 21 May 2020 / Published: 23 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus associated with various toxic diseases due to their emetic and superantigenic activities. Although at least 27 SE(-like) genes have been identified in S. aureus to date, the newly identified SE(-like) genes have not yet been well characterized by their epidemiological features. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of SE gene sey and SE-like genes selw, selx, selz, sel26, and sel27 were investigated for 624 clinical isolates of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA). The most prevalent SE(-like) gene was selw (92.9%), followed by selx (85.6%), sey (35.4%) and selz (5.6%), while sel26 and sel27 were not detected. Phylogenetically, sey, selw, selx, and selz were discriminated into 7, 10, 16, and 9 subtypes (groups), respectively. Among these subtypes, sey was the most conserved and showed the highest sequence identity (>98.8%), followed by selz and selx. The SE-like gene selw was the most divergent, and four out of ten genetic groups contained pseudogenes that may encode truncated product. Individual subtypes of SE(-like) genes were generally found in isolates with specific genotypes/lineages of S. aureus. This study revealed the putative ubiquity of selw and selx and the prevalence of sey and selz in some specific lineages (e.g., ST121) in CA-MRSA, suggesting a potential role of these newly described SEs(-like) in pathogenicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; enterotoxin; sey; selw; selx; selz Staphylococcus aureus; enterotoxin; sey; selw; selx; selz
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Aung, M.S.; Urushibara, N.; Kawaguchiya, M.; Ito, M.; Habadera, S.; Kobayashi, N. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin (-Like) Genes sey, selw, selx, selz, sel26 and sel27 in Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Toxins 2020, 12, 347.

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