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The In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicokinetics of Citreoviridin Extracted from Penicillium citreonigrum
Open AccessCommunication

Whole Genome Analysis Revealed the Genes Responsible for Citreoviridin Biosynthesis in Penicillium citreonigrum

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Azabu University, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
Department of Computer Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health and Sciences, Kanagawa 210-9501, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 125; (registering DOI)
Received: 23 January 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
Citreoviridin (CTV) is a mycotoxin that is produced by Aspergillus terreus, Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum and Penicillium citreonigrum, and CTV has been detected in a wide range of cereal grains throughout the world. Furthermore, it is especially a serious problem in regions where rice is consumed as a staple food. Moreover, CTV is a well-known yellow rice toxin, and outbreaks of beriberi have occurred due to consumption of rice that is contaminated by CTV even in the recent years. Although CTV biosynthetic genes of A. terreus have been described, those of P. citreonigrum remain unclear, which is concerning since P. citreonigrum is the main cause of CTV contamination in rice. In the present study, we determined the draft genome of the P. citreonigrum strain IMI92228 and revealed the presence of all four genes that form a gene cluster and that are homologous to the CTV biosynthesis genes of A. terreus. The expression of these four homologous genes were highly correlated with CTV production, suggesting that they may play an important role in CTV biosynthesis in P. citreonigrum. We concluded that the gene cluster is a CTV biosynthesis cluster of P. citreonigrum. The findings will contribute to the understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of CTV and will ultimately lead to improvements in the CTV management of agricultural products. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosynthesis gene cluster; citreoviridin; draft genome; Penicillium citreonigrum biosynthesis gene cluster; citreoviridin; draft genome; Penicillium citreonigrum
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Okano, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Izawa, K.; Yoshinari, T.; Sugita-Konishi, Y. Whole Genome Analysis Revealed the Genes Responsible for Citreoviridin Biosynthesis in Penicillium citreonigrum. Toxins 2020, 12, 125.

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