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2-Phenylethyl Isothiocyanate Exerts Antifungal Activity against Alternaria alternata by Affecting Membrane Integrity and Mycotoxin Production

College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
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Toxins 2020, 12(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020124 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 February 2020 / Revised: 13 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
Black spot caused by Alternaria alternata is one of the important diseases of pear fruit during storage. Isothiocyanates are known as being strong antifungal compounds in vitro against different fungi. The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal effects of the volatile compound 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (2-PEITC) against A. alternata in vitro and in pear fruit, and to explore the underlying inhibitory mechanisms. The in vitro results showed that 2-PEITC significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth of A. alternata—the inhibitory effects showed a dose-dependent pattern and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 1.22 mM. The development of black spot rot on the pear fruit inoculated with A. alternata was also significantly decreased by 2-PEITC fumigation. At 1.22 mM concentration, the lesion diameter was only 39% of that in the control fruit at 7 days after inoculation. Further results of the leakage of electrolyte, increase of intracellular OD260, and propidium iodide (PI) staining proved that 2-PEITC broke cell membrane permeability of A. alternata. Moreover, 2-PEITC treatment significantly decreased alternariol (AOH), alternariolmonomethyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT), and tentoxin (TEN) contents of A. alternata. Taken together, these data suggest that the mechanisms underlying the antifungal effect of 2-PEITC against A. alternata might be via reduction in toxin content and breakdown of cell membrane integrity. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate; Alternaria alternata; pear fruit; black spot; membrane integrity; mycotoxin 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate; Alternaria alternata; pear fruit; black spot; membrane integrity; mycotoxin
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Zhang, M.; Li, Y.; Bi, Y.; Wang, T.; Dong, Y.; Yang, Q.; Zhang, T. 2-Phenylethyl Isothiocyanate Exerts Antifungal Activity against Alternaria alternata by Affecting Membrane Integrity and Mycotoxin Production. Toxins 2020, 12, 124.

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